Authored by Ian Hamilton and published by the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia/SIPA in February 2023, this paper assesses the buildings sector’s energy performance and CO2 emissions progress in relation to Paris Agreement targets. It underscores the discrepancy between these efforts and the global net-zero emissions by 2050 objective. The report outlines pathways for building decarbonization, emphasizing energy efficiency enhancement, electrification, and technology adoption like heat pumps. While available solutions include better building envelopes and financing options, true sustainability transformation necessitates equity integration. This includes addressing fuel poverty, supporting marginalized communities, and facilitating clean energy access.

Keywords: Building Retrofits, Climate Change, Energy Efficiency/Management, Healthy Buildings, HVAC & Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), Large Building Controls/Automation, Renewable Energy, System Integrator, Decarbonization, Columbia, SIPA, Equity, Heat Pumps, CO2

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