The report was prepared in November 2019 by Navigant Research and describes how Europe is pushing the envelope on the virtual power plant (VPP) concept. The topics covered include European experiments for next generation VPPS,  expanding VPP markets beyond country borders, linking energy trading to grid reliability via VPPs, and Europe’s initiative to take VPPs to the next level. The report is useful for electric utility owners and operators, electrical engineers, technologists, government officials, and policy makers.

Key words: association, natural gas, protocols/standards, controls/sensors, research & development, smart grid, distributed energy resource, virtual power plant

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