This 2019 study from the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy shows that energy efficiency upgrades in new homes are more cost-effective than installing rooftop solar photovoltaic panels in U.S. climate zones 2-6, generating monthly savings of $4 to $32. Cost comparisons are provided. This paper is relevant for specialist working in numerous sectors, including investment/financing, government, technology, and utilities.
Key words: energy management, protocols/security, smart grid, utilities, energy efficiency, solar photovoltaic

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